Journal Info

Title: Jurnal Medical Aradean (Arad Medical Journal)
Abbreviated title: J. Med. Ar.
Publisher: "Vasile Goldis" University Press
Owner: Western University "Vasile Goldis" Arad, Romania
ISSN: 1224-3744
e-ISSN: 2067-7790

Ranking and Indexing

Rank: CNCSIS C (code 292) since 2010

International Database: Index Copernicus Journal Master List Value (2010): 4.66

Who's Online

We have 20 guests online

Index Databases

Written by Topor N., Olar D., Avram C., Burlacu R.   
Read full article
Authors:1Natalia Alina Topor, 2Dana Olar, 3Cecilia Avram, 4Ramona Burlacu
Affiliation:1Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad, 2Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad, 3Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad, 4Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad
Abstract:When microglia is maladaptive activated in the brain, may be the origin of the unconscious drive such as death drive in the unconscious mind, and induce emotional reactions such as anxiety, fear, aggression envy, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Beyond its traditional role in defending the body, the immune system is now considered a diffuse sensory organ and metabolic regulator that works in concert with the nervous system to achieve and maintain body homeostasis; the involvement of immune cells, in the first place the microglia cells and their products of secretion, such as the cytokines, in brain physiology and pathology. The bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system via cytokines has important consequences for behavior.
Keywords:brain, behavior, emotion, immune, microglia, unconscious.
References:Barres, B. A. The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease. Neuron 60, 430–440,2008
Bennet, L., and Gunn, A. The fetal origins of adult mental illness. In Early Life Origins of Health and Disease (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology), M. Wintour-Coghlan and J. Owens, eds (New York, Springer), pp. 204–211.,2006
Bilbo, S. D., and Schwarz, J. M. (2009). Early-life programming of later-life brain and behavior: a critical role for the immune system. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 3:14. doi: 10.3389/neuro.08.014..2009
Block, M. L., Zecca, L., and Hong, J. S. . Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 57–69.,2007
Dantzer R., O'Connor J. C., Freund G. G., Johnson R. W., Kelley K. W. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 46–56.10.1038/nrn2297 ,2008
Dilger, R. N., and Johnson, R. W. Aging, microglial cell priming, and the discordant central inflammatory response to signals from the peripheral immune system. J. Leukoc. Biol. 84, 932–939.,2008
Doorduin, J., De Vries, E. F., Willemsen, A. T., De Groot, J. C., Dierckx, R. A., and Klein, H. C. Neuroinflammation in schizophrenia-related psychosis: a PET study. J. Nucl. Med. 50, 1801–1807,2009
Feldman, M. (2000). Some views on the manifestation of the death instinct in clinical work. Int. J. Psychoanal. 81, 53–65.
Frank M. G., Barrientos R. M., Biedenkapp J. C., Rudy J. W., Watkins L. R., Maier S. F. mRNA up-regulation of MHC II and pivotal pro-inflammatory genes in normal brain aging.Neurobiol. Aging 27, 717–722.10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.03.013,2006
Freud, S. (1920). “Beyond the pleasure principle,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XVIII (1920–1922): Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Group Psychology and Other Works, ed J. Strachey (London: Hogarth Press), 1–64.
Freud, S. (1924). “The economic problem of masochism,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIX (1923–1925): the Ego and the Id and Other Works, ed J. Strachey (London: Hogarth Press), 155–170.
Freud, S. (1933). “New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXII (1932-1936): New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works, ed J. Strachey (London: Hogarth Press), 1–182.
Freud, S. (1933). “Why war?” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXII (1932-1936): New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works, ed J. Strachey (London: Hogarth Press), 195–216.

Girgis, R. R., Diwadkar, V. A., Nutche, J. J., Sweeney, J. A., Keshavan, M. S., and Hardan, A. Y. Risperidone in first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal, exploratory voxel-based morphometric study. Schizophr. Res. 82, 89–94.,2006
Giaume, C., Kirchhoff, F., Matute, C., Reichenbach, A., and Verkhratsky, A. Glia: the fulcrum of brain diseases. Cell Death Differ. 14, 1324–1335,2007
Glantz, L. A., Gilmore, J. H., Lieberman, J. A., and Jarskog, L. F. . Apoptotic mechanisms and the synaptic pathology of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 81, 47–63.,2006
Graeber, M. B. Changing face of microglia. Science 330, 783–788. ,2010
Graeber, M. B., and Streit, W. J. Microglia: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol. 119, 89–105,2010
Hanisch, U. K., and Kettenmann, H. Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain. Nat. Neurosci. 10, 1387–1394.,2007
Hart B. L. Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 12, 123–137.10.1016/S0149-7634(88)80004-6 ,1988
Hartmann, H.. Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York, NY: International Universities Press.
Henkel, J. S., Beers, D. R., Zhao, W., and Appel, S. H. (2009). Microglia in ALS: the good, the bad, and the resting. J. Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 4, 389–398.,1939
Hinwood, M., Morandini, J., Day, T. A., and Walker, F. R. Evidence that microglia mediate the neurobiological effects of chronic psychological stress on the medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex 22, 1442–1454.,2012
Jang, S., and Johnson, R. W. Can consuming flavonoids restore old microglia to their youthful state? Nutr. Rev. 68, 719–728.,2010
Jarskog, L. F., Glantz, L. A., Gilmore, J. H., and Lieberman, J. A.. Apoptotic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 29, 846–858.,2005
Kato TA and Kanba S (2013) Are microglia minding us? Digging up the unconscious mind-brain relationship from a neuropsychoanalytic approach. Front. Hum. Neurosci. ,2013.
Kato, T. A., Yamauchi, Y., Horikawa, H., Monji, A., Mizoguchi, Y., Seki, Y., et al. (2013). Neurotransmitters, psychotropic drugs and microglia: clinical implications for psychiatry. Curr. Med. Chem. 20, 331–344.,2013
Kent S., Bluthe R. M., Kelley K. W., Dantzer R. Sickness behavior as a new target for drug development. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 13, 24–28.10.1016/0165-6147(92)90012-U,1992
Kernberg, O. F. (2012). The seeking system and Freud's Dual-Drive Theory Today.Neuropsychoanalysis 14, 50–52.,2012
Kettenmann, H., Hanisch, U. K., Noda, M., and Verkhratsky, A. Physiology of microglia. Physiol. Rev. 91, 461–553.,2011
Klein, M. . “Envy and Gratitude,” in The Writing of Melanie Klein, Volume 5. Envy and Gratitude and Other Works (1946–1963), ed R. E. Money-Kyrle (London: Hogarth Press), 176–235.,1957
Kraepelin E. Dementia praecox and paraphrenia (Foundations of Modern Psychiatry) [FACSIMILE], 1st Edn, July, 2002. Thoemmes Press.,1919
Lalancette-Hebert M., Gowing G., Simard A., Weng Y. C., Kriz J. Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain. J. Neurosci. 27, 2596–2605.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5360-06.,2007

Lieberman, J. A., Tollefson, G. D., Charles, C., Zipursky, R., Sharma, T., Kahn, R. S., et al. (2005). Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in first-episode psychosis.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62, 361–370.,2005
Macritchie, K. A., Lloyd, A. J., Bastin, M. E., Vasudev, K., Gallagher, P., Eyre, R., et al. White matter microstructural abnormalities in euthymic bipolar disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry 196, 52–58.,2010
Monji, A., Kato, T., and Kanba, S. Cytokines and schizophrenia: microglia hypothesis of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 63, 257–265.,2009
Nelson K. B., Willoughby R. E. Infection, inflammation and the risk of cerebral palsy.Curr. Opin. Neurol. 13, 133–139.10.1097/00019052-200004000-00004 ,2000
Nesse R., Williams G. Why we get sick. New York, Vintage Books.,1994
Northoff, G. (2012). Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience? Front. Psychol. 3:71. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00071
Panksepp, J. Affective Neuroscience: the Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.,2004
Panksepp, J. . Neuro-psychoanalysis may enliven the mindbrain sciences.Cortex 43, 1106–1107. discussion: 1116–1121.,2007
Panksepp, J., and Solms, M. . What is neuropsychoanalysis? Clinically relevant studies of the minded brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16, 6–8.,2012
Perry V. H., Cunningham C., Boche D. Atypical inflammation in the central nervous system in prion disease. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15, 349–354.10.1097/00019052-200206000-00020 ,2002
Perry V. H., Newman T. A., Cunningham C. The impact of systemic infection on the progression of neurodegenerative disease. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 103–112.10.1038/nrn1032,2003
Schiavone, S., Sorce, S., Dubois-Dauphin, M., Jaquet, V., Colaianna, M., Zotti, M., et al. Involvement of NOX2 in the development of behavioral and pathologic alterations in isolated rats. Biol. Psychiatry 66, 384–392.,2009
Solms, M., and Lechevalier, B. (2002). Neurosciences and psychoanalysis. Int. J. Psychoanal. 83, 233–237.,2002
Steiner, J., Mawrin, C., Ziegeler, A., Bielau, H., Ullrich, O., Bernstein, H. G., et al. (2006). Distribution of HLA-DR-positive microglia in schizophrenia reflects impaired cerebral lateralization. Acta Neuropathol. 112, 305–316.,2006
Sugama, S., Fujita, M., Hashimoto, M., and Conti, B. . Stress induced morphological microglial activation in the rodent brain: involvement of interleukin-18. Neuroscience 146, 1388–1399.,2007
Sugama, S., Takenouchi, T., Fujita, M., Conti, B., and Hashimoto, M. . Differential microglial activation between acute stress and lipopolysaccharide treatment. J. Neuroimmunol. 207, 24–31.,2009
Takano, A., Arakawa, R., Ito, H., Tateno, A., Takahashi, H., Matsumoto, R., et al. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a PET study with [11C]DAA1106. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 13, 943–950.2010
Tynan, R. J., Naicker, S., Hinwood, M., Nalivaiko, E., Buller, K. M., Pow, D. V., et al. Chronic stress alters the density and morphology of microglia in a subset of stress-responsive brain regions. Brain Behav. Immun. 24, 1058–1068.,2010
Uranova, N. A., Vostrikov, V. M., Orlovskaya, D. D., and Rachmanova, V. I. . Oligodendroglial density in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders: a study from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. Schizophr. Res. 67, 269–275.,2004
Uranova, N. A., Vostrikov, V. M., Vikhreva, O. V., Zimina, I. S., Kolomeets, N. S., and Orlovskaya, D. D. The role of oligodendrocyte pathology in schizophrenia.Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 10, 537–545.,2007
Van Berckel, B. N., Bossong, M. G., Boellaard, R., Kloet, R., Schuitemaker, A., Caspers, E., et al. Microglia activation in recent-onset schizophrenia: a quantitative (R)-[11C]PK11195 positron emission tomography study. Biol. Psychiatry 64, 820–822.,2008
Van Gool, W. A., Van De Beek, D., and Eikelenboom, P. . Systemic infection and delirium: when cytokines and acetylcholine collide. Lancet 375, 773–775.,2010
Vitkovic L., Bockaert J., Jacque C. “Inflammatory” cytokines: neuromodulators in normal brain? J. Neurochem. 74, 457–471.10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.740457.x,2000
Wake, H., Moorhouse, A. J., Jinno, S., Kohsaka, S., and Nabekura, J. Resting microglia directly monitor the functional state of synapses in vivo and determine the fate of ischemic terminals. J. Neurosci. 29, 3974–3980.,2009
Wohleb, E. S., Hanke, M. L., Corona, A. W., Powell, N. D., Stiner, L. M., Bailey, M. T., et al. . Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism prevents anxiety-like behavior and microglial reactivity induced by repeated social defeat. J. Neurosci. 31, 6277–6288.,2011
Wolpert, L., and Fonagy, P. There is no place for the psychoanalytic case report in the British Journal of Psychiatry. Br. J. Psychiatry 195, 483–487.,2009
Wright, J. S., and Panksepp, J. An evolutionary framework to understand foraging, wanting, and desire: the neuropsychology of the SEEKING system .Neuropsychoanalysis 14, 5–39.,2012
*Correspondence:Natalia Alina Topor, “Vasile Goldiş” Western University Arad, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Life Science, no. 1 Constitution St., 310396, Arad, Romania, Tel. +40-(257)-222222, Fax. +40-(257)-222222, email This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it